This post is based on my personal experience as a navigator. The collision avoidance guidelines outlined here are being practiced on a variety of vessels.
Keep a sharp all-round lookout by all available means and never hesitate to call an additional lookout.
Monitor targets continuously until they are past and clear. Do not loose your situational awareness.
Avoid clusters of fishing boats. Remember small crafts may not be picked up on the Radar and also may change course frequently.
Take early action, especially on fast ships.
As far as practicable, when altering course to take avoiding action, alter at least 30-40 degrees. Small alterations are not easily detected by other vessels.
Do not hesitate to or delay the changeover to hand steering.
If sea room allows, do not ever hesitate to move away from the ‘course line’ to avoid collisions.
Do not hesitate to use engines.
Do not hesitate to use sound and light signals, be it day or night.
For emergency, manoeuvres remember that a vessel can be turned around with a hard over wheel within 5 ship lengths e.g. for a ship of length 200m this translates to about 0.5 miles.
Use radar vectors and trails to your best advantage.
Call Master if in any doubt about handling traffic or if minimum CPA cannot be obtained.
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The Collision Avoidance Guidelines are based on the Rules of the Road (RoR) and should not be used in violation of the RoR.
“Stay alert at all times”
|SITUATION||GUIDANCE (distance / time not less than stated below)|
|Open Sea Minimum CPA / TCPA||2 miles / 15 minutes|
|Coastal Passage Minimum CPA / TCPA||1 mile / 15 minutes|
|Heavy Traffic Area Minimum CPA / TCPA||0.5 miles / 15 minutes (As far as practicable)|
|If own vessel is give way vessel, take action||8 miles|
|Overtaking, take action||2 miles|
|If own vessel is stand-on vessel and give way vessel is not keeping clear, take action||4 miles|